The 2024 3D InCites Yearbook

Solving the AI Puzzle By Monita Pau, Onto Innovation

machines. AI is used to classify machines that mimic human intelligence and human cognitive functions like problem-solving and learning. Generative AI: This subset of artificial intelligence uses techniques (such as deep learning) to generate new content. For example, you can use generative AI to create images, text, or audio. Machine Learning (ML): This subset of AI focuses on prediction and classification tasks. Machine learning is AI that can automatically adapt with minimal human interference. Deep Learning: This is a subfield of machine learning that uses artificial neural networks to mimic the learning process of the human brain. It focuses on neural networks to solve complex problems. Each one of the above applications benefits from or needs high-performance computing capability. Now that we have discussed AI let’s explore the packaging challenges of 2.5D AI devices further. This article will focus on the challenges associated with through-silicon vias (TSVs), microbumps, and AICS. TSV Challenges TSVs are a key piece of the puzzle for the construction and performance of both 2.5D and 3D packages. Designed with extremely small critical dimensions, high-aspect ratios (HAR), and fine pitches, TSVs enable high numbers of inputs/outputs and provide vertical electrical pathways for HBM and silicon interposers (Figure 1).

An AI package is like a puzzle made up of individual pieces of different sizes and shapes, each one essential to the final product. Together, these pieces are typically integrated in a 2.5D IC package designed to reduce footprint and maximize bandwidth. A graphic processing unit (GPU) and multiple 3D high- bandwidth memory (HBM) stacks provide the major pieces in the AI puzzle. These puzzle pieces are first assembled on top of a silicon interposer. An advanced IC substrate (AICS) provides the foundation on which the 2.5D package is built. While we could go on at great lengths to discuss the manufacturing of each of these AI puzzle pieces, for this article, we are focusing on the advanced packaging side of the process – the glue that holds all the pieces together – and the many manufacturing challenges of a 2.5D IC package. But before we get into that, let’s talk about what AI is Forget what the movies have told us. AI today has little in common with sentient machines dedicated to serving or enslaving humanity. As we know it, AI is simply a new type of technological tool. It does what other tools do: enables its users to complete tasks with more efficiency and ease. The following is a list of the different types of AI, a list that, fittingly, was created using generative AI. and what AI isn’t. A Word About AI Artificial Intelligence (AI): This is a broad term that encompasses all aspects of creating intelligent

3D InCites Yearbook



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